• Judge cites 1st Amendment in saying account is public forum • President blocked users after they replied to his tweets

President Donald Trump can’t block critics from following his Twitter account, a federal judge ruled in a decision that opens his favorite communication forum to uncensored commentary from political opponents.

In a 75-page ruling that rejects Trump’s argument that he has a First Amendment right to pick with whom he associates and retains the right not to engage with others, a Manhattan federal judge said the section of his personal account with the reply button is a public forum and blocking users on the basis of political speech is a violation of their free-speech rights.

“This is a groundbreaking decision,” said Clay Calvert, a First Amendment expert who teaches at University of Florida College of Journalism and Communications. “It establishes that social media accounts operated by a government official -- even the president of the United States -- constitutes a public forum.”

The case, while not the first to rule that a public official can’t block criticism on social media, is the first to apply the concept to the president’s feed on@realDonaldTrump.

“No government official -- including the president -- is above the law,” wrote U.S. District JudgeNaomi Reice Buchwald in Manhattan.

Seven Users

Buchwald’s decision came in a case brought last year by the Knight First Amendment Institute at Columbia University on behalf of seven Twitter users who were blocked by Trump after replying to his tweets. Among them was Rebecca Buckwalter, a writer and political consultant who was blocked in June after responding to Trump’s tweet that he would have had ZERO chance winning WH” if he had relied on the “Fake News.”

Buckwalter was blocked after replying, “To be fair you didn’t win the WH: Russia won it for you.”

The judge said Trump couldn’t suppress such responses. Blocking detractors is more than just ignoring their comments, she said. Instead, doing so limits their “right to speak in a discrete, measurable way.”

By blocking users, Trump prevented them from speaking to others on the reply thread, not just to him, the judge said. The president has more than 52 million followers on Twitter.

Political Views

“This case requires us to consider whether a public official may, consistent with the First Amendment, ‘block’ a person from his Twitter account in response to the political views that person has expressed, and whether the analysis differs because that public official is the President,” Buchwald said. “The answer to both questions is no.”

The Department of Justice said in a statement that it “respectfully” disagrees with the ruling and is considering how to proceed.

“The president’s practice of blocking critics on Twitter is pernicious and unconstitutional, and we hope this ruling will bring it to an end,” Jameel Jaffer, the Knight Institute’s executive director, said in a statement.

The judge declined to order Trump to unblock users, saying her decision should be sufficient to force a change in behavior.

Viewpoint Discrimination

“The essence of this ruling is that viewpoint discrimination is prohibited,” said Clayton, of the University of Florida. “Trump’s personal Twitter account has become a public forum and this court concluded that he cannot block those who disagree with him and only allow those who agree with him.”

Trump isn’t the first politician to block critics from social media. In July, a federal court in Virginia said the chair of a county board of supervisors had violated the First Amendment rights of a constituent by blocking him from the county’s Facebook page.

In another case, four Maryland residents sued GovernorLarry Hogan, claiming he censored them by deleting their comments and blocking them from his Facebook page because they didn’t agree with his views. The case settled after Hogan adopted a new social media policy.

Twitter, which wasn’t a party to the lawsuit, declined to comment.

Thecaseis Knight First Amendment Institute v. Trump, 17-cv-5205, U.S. District Court, Southern District of New York.

To contact the reporters on this story: Chris Dolmetsch in New York State Supreme Court in Manhattan atcdolmetsch@bloomberg.net; Patricia Hurtado in Federal Court in Manhattan atpathurtado@bloomberg.net

To contact the editors responsible for this story: David Glovin atdglovin@bloomberg.net Joe Schneider